Sunday, October 1, 2017 | By: Nurul Fajry Maulida

Gender Relation Towards Attitude Overview's Pharmacy Students About Smoking Impacts


The title of the research is "Gender Relation Towards Attitude Overview's Pharmacy Students about Smoking Impacts". This is a research conducted by a team composed of ISMAFARSI students and KSM Eka Prasetya UI members. 


Wayne McLaren, the Marlboro Man, before he died at 51 years old, after a long struggle of lung cancer, he said to his mother, "Tobacco will kill you, and I am living proof of it". As the pharmacist, we really know about the smoking impacts, such as Larynx cancer, esophagus cancer, etc which is mention in the picture below. 


Indonesia was ranked as the third in the world as the highest number of smokers after India and China. From the total Indonesian population, 67.5% were the male smokers, 4.5% were the female smokers, while the rest were the nonsmokers. 

Other than that, 168 countries had signed the FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), yet only Indonesia is neither the signatory nor the party of the FCTC. 


Health professionals have a prominent role to play in tobacco control, including pharmacist. Most of pharmacists are female. This phenomenon raises a question, do the pharmacists that is mostly female have a high concern on tobacco control? Instead of the most smokers in Indonesia are male not female.  

While there is a research found that gender is able to affect attitude. Another research found that attitude can affect the effectiveness of certain programs. So, the objective of the research was to find out about the relation of the gender towards attitude overview for pharmacy students about smoking impact. 

The study was using quantitative approach which the strategy used was a survey method with the cross-sectional type. The population of this research was the pharmacy students at Universitas Indonesia in 2014. Thirty pharmacy students were divided into two groups, the first group composed of 21 female students and the second group composed of 9 male students. 

The sampling technique was non-random sampling with the accidental sampling technique. The quantitative data was obtained from online questionnaires. The questionnaires contained 76 statements that comprised of 21 cognitive, 31 affection, and 24 behavior dimension statements. Deep interview with pharmacy students were also done to support the quantitative data. 

Saphiro-Wilk normality test and nonparametic statistical test approach (Mann-Whitney test) were used to explore the normality and to discover whether there is an attitude overview difference between female and male pharmacy students or not. 

The null hypothesis was there is no relation between female and male pharmacy students toward attitude overview about smoking impacts. While the alternative hypothesis was there is a relation between female and male pharmacy students toward attitude overview about smoking impact. The level of significance used was 5% or 0.05.

The attitude overview wa measured by calcualating each dimension separately. Every dimension was measured using likert scale which contains four categories: strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Then, the total scores were divided by 5 so it would be resulting 5 ranges. 


The result was firstly, on the cognitive dimension, it was shown the p value (level of significance value) was 0.859 which is more than 0.05. Then, it's concluded that there is no relation between gender and attitude overview's pharmacy student on cognitive dimension. Cognitive dimension according to Greenberg and Baron (1997) is the component of attitude variable refers to intelligence elements (intellectual) to find out an object, that is to know how far an individual knows some things correlated to the object. This research found out that female and male pharmacy students have the same cognitive dimension about smoking impacts. Both have the same level of knowledge that smoking can cause several diseases. Since both has already studied about it in the same college, the same subject, and at the same time. 


Secondly, on the affection dimension, the p value was 0.114 which is still more than 0.05 so we can conclude that there is no relation. Affection dimension is the component of attitude variable which gives evaluation to assess an object about feeling or emotions. This research found out that female and male pharmacy students have the same affection about smoking impacts. Both have same feelings that both are upset if there is someone smokes in the public area or there is smokers from their friends or relatives according to the data obtained through the questionnaires assessment. 


Thirdly, on the behavior dimension, the result showed that the p value was 0.04 which is less than 0.05 so we can conclude that there is relation between gender and attitude overview's pharmacy student about smoking impacts. Behavior dimension is the component of attitude variable which refers on how individual defines actions/behaviors towards an objects that individual knows or feels. This research found out that male pharmacy student have lower tendency to behave on smoking impacts. It may be caused by the higher tendency of male students to try smoking. This thought was also supported by male pharmacy student while having the deep interview.
"I often hear that there is smoker among pharmacy student. He becomes smoker because of his environment".
Hence, the conclusion was there is no relation between gender and attitude overview's pharmacy student about smoking impacts on cognitive and affection dimension. Nevertheless, there is relation between the gender and attitude overview's pharmacy student about smoking impacts on behavior dimension. This research result can be useful for the government to make the strategy how to involve pharmacist on tobacco control regarding to the gender. 

That's all. Thanks for reading the post. I'm sorry if there are any mistakes. For full text about the research, you can contact me by filling the comments below. 

Squid Ink Waste: The Alternative for L-Dopa Raw Material


L-Dopa is the common medicine used for Parkinson disease treatment. Parkinson disease is a movement disorder with the symptoms are tremor on the arm, leg, face, and jaw, joint stiffness, and balance disorder. See the video below.

video
Video Source: Youtube.com


Besides those physical symptoms, the patient also feels depressed and hard to sleep. Even though most of the patients are coming from elderly with the age over 65, but in the recent decade, a research found that this disease has started to strike a productive age over 40 years old.

If you were the patient, you would live your life really uncomfortably, with the difficultness and stiffness in the movements, depression feeling, and hard to sleep. 

While the price for L-Dopa is quite expensive, around 4500 IDR per tablet. A medicine is considered as an inexpensive or affordable medicine when the price is in the range of 200 IDR per tablet. So, the price for L-Dopa is 20 times more expensive than the affordable one. 

What does make the L-Dopa expensive?

The cost of production itself does make the L-Dopa expensive. The production involves a synthesis reaction. When you were in the high school, you might remember this scheme.


The scheme above is the production of L-Dopa reaction. The reaction that I have shown above is using catalyst, but not a simple catalyst, an expensive catalyst so it makes the whole production cost of L-Dopa expensive. 

The synthesis reaction was invented by Knowles who is the Nobel Prize winner. The process is still used by most of the pharmaceutical industries all around the world, so the price of L-Dopa is still expensive. Moreover, Indonesia is not able to produce its own L-Dopa so it makes the price of L-Dopa more and more expensive, Indonesia obtain L-Dopa by import, even there is a fact that 95% of pharmaceutical raw material in Indonesia is obtained by import so, in the other word, Indonesia is still depending on other countries on supplying the need of L-Dopa. Therefore, the expensive process and the L-Dopa that is obtained by import make the L-Dopa expensive and less affordable. 

Hence, I would like to invite all of you to agree with the idea, to use the squid ink waste as the source of L-Dopa raw material. Why squid ink?

Because there is a research that found that squid ink contains L-Dopa substance 2.18 nmol per mg. So, scientifically it is proven that L-Dopa is contained in the squid ink.


Why squid ink waste? Moreover, it will be less expensive, large in amount, and potentially to be supported by Indonesia government.

Firstly, it will be less expensive if we use the squid ink waste. Of course, since we use the waste of the squid ink that is usually thrown away by the fisherman because they think it doesn't have value, so we can get the squid ink waste for free or pay with a cheap price. Even, by utilizing the waste we help the government to decrease the water pollution as we know there are still irresponsible people who throw away the squid ink waste to the sea without thinking about its bad impact. One of the examples was in Bali which its Kedongan sea was polluted by the smelly squid ink waste. 


Other than that, we don't need to follow the synthesis process since we obtain the L-Dopa from a natural source. The common L-Dopa produced through Knowless method is the synthetic one which is from chemical substance. While the production method for natural substances and chemical substance is different. The production method for natural substance will involve extraction, isolation, and purification. Those processes are purposed to separate the L-Dopa compound from the squid ink and to have the L-Dopa in its high purity.


That's why the L-Dopa from the squid ink doesn't need to follow the expensive process from Knowless method. Even though, the production method from the squid ink is still investigated. I believe the method will be less expensive since mostly the production method from the natural source is that less expensive. 

Secondly, the squid ink is available in the large amount. Of course, because the squid ink is coming from the squid. While, the squid itself is one of the biggest export compodities in Indonesia beside shrimp, lobster, crabs, and others. The squid is available for about 25000 ton per year. So, we don't need to worry about the supply of the squid ink waste. We also don't need to worry about how to collect the squid ink waste, we can cooperate with the squid supplier so we don't need to collect the squid ink waste from the fisherman directly.

Thirdly, it is potential to be supported by the government. Jokowi, our president now, through the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Susi Pudjiastuti, tried to change our nation development direction from land-based to maritime-based. Why does maritime? As we have already known since the elementary school that the biggest part or for about two-thirds of Indonesia zone is the sea and our country is rich in maritime-based.  How come? There have been so many researches which supported that the maritime base of Indonesia is potential to be developed but for so many years it was underdeveloped. Our government now realized the opportunity to increase our economy by focusing on developing the maritime base.


So, there is no doubt that the squid ink waste is really recommended to be developed as the L-Dopa raw material because it will be really less expensive, available in a large amount, and potentially to be supported by the government. 

Therefore, I hope all of you will agree with the idea to use the squid ink waste as the L-Dopa raw material. If you agree with the idea, at the same time, you agree to change. Change to be independent, not to depend on other countries anymore. If it's not you to change, who else? I really appreciated your voice and your support.

That's all. Thank you for reading my post :D
I'm sorry if there are any mistakes. 
Saturday, September 23, 2017 | By: Nurul Fajry Maulida

Catatan Belajar Bahasa Jepang #2

Tanpa bimbingan kakak senior sebagai guru privat, saya belajarnya benar-benar random, tidak terstruktur. Merasa bingung sendiri harus mulai dari mana dan bagaimana. Awalnya saya kekeh belajar sendiri dengan metode sendiri. Berhubung merasa berhasil belajar TOEFL sendiri dengan tidak mengikuti kursus karena saya memiliki prinsip "kalau bisa belajar sendiri, kenapa harus dibimbing". Namun, tampaknya metode belajar sendiri tidak bisa diterapkan untuk belajar bahasa yang benar-benar baru buat saya. Saya menyadari pentingnya guru untuk membimbing saya, agar saya dapat tahu arah mulai dari mana, belajar yang mana, apa target saya, dan bagaimana cara mencapainya. 

Setelah mengenal Hiragana dan Katakana, saya diarahkan untuk mengenal pola kalimat paling sederhana terlebih dahulu, yaitu bentuk "A wa B desu" dengan A sebagai predikat, wa bisa dibilang seperti "to be" nya bahasa Inggris, B kata sifat/kata benda yang menjelaskan predikatnya. Jadi pola kalimatnya belum yang ada kata kerjanya. 

Biasanya kalau belajar bahasa Inggris dulu, ketika membuat kalimat, kita diajarkan untuk menuliskan bentuk positifnya, negatifnya, juga tanda tanyanya. Begitu pula dalam belajar bahasa Jepang, harus bisa pula membentuk kalimat negatif dari pola "A wa B desu", yaitu polanya "A wa B dewa arimasen", sementara kalimat tanyanya menjadi "A wa B desuka".

Sebelum belajar membentuk pola kalimat tersebut, ada baiknya mempelajari dulu macam-macam kata yang bisa dijadikan predikat. Predikatnya bisa berupa kata benda atau kata ganti orang. Belajar kata ganti orang saja dulu ya. 

Jika bahasa Inggris, saya "I" kamu "you", tidak ada bedanya jika bicara dengan orang yang dihormati kalau bicara saya, ya "I" dan kamu "you" berbeda dengan bahasa Jepang, beda orang yang diajak bicara, agar sopan kepada yang lebih tua, penyebutan saya berbeda dengan ketika berbicara dengan teman sebaya. Jadi untuk kata ganti orang pertama saja, ada banyak versinya, tergantung tingkat kesopanannya. Beda ya, agak ribet kalau menurut saya. Bahasa Jerman yang dulu saya belajari 3 tahun di SMA saja juga untuk penyebutan saya dengan siapa pun cukup "ich". Tapi ya, karena sedang belajar bahasa Jepang, harus diterima aturannya, dipelajari, dan diimplementasikan sebaik-baiknya. 

1. Kata ganti orang pertama
saya, aku ada 7 macam, yaitu:
a) sopan: わたくし watakushi
b) ramah: わたし watashi
c) dipakai oleh wanita: あたし atashi
d) dipakai oleh laki-laki menunjukkan keakraban: ぼく boku
e) dipakai oleh laki-laki atau orang tua: わし washi
f) sopan, banyak dipakai dalam perdagangan: てまえ temae
g) kasar, tetapi dipakai juga oleh laki-laki: おれ ore

わたくし, わたし, dan てまえ ada bentuk kanjinya sendiri. 

わたくし: 私 
cara menuliskannya/stroke order-nya: seperti di bawah ini.



Jika di post sebelumnya telah mengenal aplikasi obenkyou untuk mengetahui cara menuliskan urutan hurufnya atau stroke-nya, maka ada pula aplikasi yang cocok untuk mempelajari stroke huruf kanji, yaitu aplikasi "Kanji Study"









わたし: 私 (memiliki kanji yang sama dengan watakushi わたくし. Jadi, cara penulisannya sama seperti yang di atas).

てまえ: 手前
Cara penulisan seperti di bawah ini:


Bisa juga mempelajarinya di sini.

Kami/kita, ada 8 macam:
a) sopan: わたくしども watakushidomo 私ども
b) sopan: わたしども watashidomo 私ども
c) ramah: わたくしたち watakushitachi 私たち
d) ramah: わたしたち watashitachi 私たち
e) ぼくたち bokutachi
f) ぼくら bokura
g) てまえども temaedomo
h) おれら orera

2. Kata ganti orang kedua
Anda, engkau, kamu, kau, ada 4 macam, yaitu:
a) hormat: あなた anata
b) biasa: あんた anta
c) dipakai oleh laki-laki きみ kimi
d) kasar: おまえ omae

kimi dan omae ad bentuk kanjinya tersendiri, yaitu
kimi: 君

stroke order-nya sebagai berikut:


omae: お前



Kalian, kamu sekalian, anda sekalian:
a) sopan: あなたがた anatagata
b) ramah: あなたたち anatatachi
c) きみたち kimitachi 君たち
d) おまえら omaera お前ら

3. Kata ganti orang ketiga
Dibagi menjadi 3 kategori, yaitu orang yang dekat dengan lawan bicara, yang agak jauh dari pembicara, dan yang jauh dari pembicara.

Orang yang dekat dengan lawan bicara
dia, ia:
a) hormat: このかた konokata
b) biasa: このひと konohito

terdapat kanji untuk kata dan hito,

kata:



hito:




mereka:
a) このかたがた konokatagata この方がた
b) このひとたち konohitotachi この人たち 

Orang yang agak jauh dari pembicara
dia:
a) そのかた sonokata その方
b) そのひと sonohito その人

mereka:
a) そのかたがた sonokatagata その方がた
b) そのひとたち sonohitotachi その人たち

Orang yang jauh dari pembicara
dia:
a) あのかた anokata あの方
b) あのひと anohito あの人

mereka:
a) あのかたがた anokatagata あの方がた
b) あのひとたち anohitotachi あの人たち

4. Kata ganti tanya
a) hormat: どなたさま donatasama どなた様
b) hormat: どちらさま dochirasama どちら様
c) sopan: どのかた dono どの方
d) sopan: どなた donata
e) biasa: だれ: dare

Terdapat kanji sama, yaitu



Dengan demikian, telah dipelajari 4 bentuk kata ganti baik orang pertama, kedua, ketiga, hingga kata tanya. Sekarang, sudah saatnya untuk mencoba menerapkan pembentukkan kalimat menggunakan kata ganti tersebut.

Kata ganti orang pertama
私 dan がくせい (murid) gakusei.
(+)私はがくせいです watakushi wa gakusei desu.
(-)私はがくせいではありません watakushi wa gakusei dewa arimasen.
(?)私はがくせいですか watakushi wa gakusei desuka.

私 dan むすめさん (anak perempuan) musume san.
(+)私はむすめさんです watashi wa musume san desu.
(-)私はむすめさんではありません watashiwa musume san dewa arimasen.
(?)私はむすめさんですか watashi wa musume san desuka.

あたし dan ちゅうじつな (setia, jujur) chūjitsu na.
(+)あたしはちゅうじつなです atashi wa chūjitsu na desu.
(-)あたしはちゅうじつなではありません atashi wa chūjitsu na dewa arimasen.
(?)あたしはちゅうじつなですか atashi wa chūjitsu na desuka.

ぼく dan げんかくな  (tegas, keras) genkaku na.
(+)ぼくはげんかくなです boku wa genkaku na desu.
(-)ぼくはげんかくなではありません boku wa genkaku na dewa arimasen.
(?)ぼくはげんかくなですか boku wa genkaku na desuka.

わし dan ゆうきな (berani) yūki na.
(+)わしはゆうきな です washi wa yūki na desu.
(-)わしはゆうきな ではありません washi wa yūki na dewa arimasen.
(?)わしはゆうきな ですか washi wa yūki na desuka.

手前dan よわい  (lemah) yowai.
(+)手前はよわいです temae wa yowai desu.
(-)手前はよわいでわありません temae wa yowai dewa arimasen.
(?)手前はよわいですか temae wa yowai desuka.

おれ dan わるい (jahat) warui.
(+)おれはわるいです ore wa warui desu.
(-)おれはわるいではありません ore wa warui dewa arimasen.
(?)おれはわるいですか ore wa warui desuka.

私ども dan あんぜんな (aman, selamat) anzen na.
(+)私どもはあんぜんなですwatakushidomo wa anzen na desu.
(-)私どもはあんぜんなではありません watakushidomo wa anzen na dewa arimasen.
(?)私どもはあんぜんなですか watakushidomo wa anzen na desuka.

私ども dan まじめな (rajin, sungguh-sungguh) majime na.
(+)私どもはまじめなです watashidomo wa majime na desu.
(-)私どもはまじめなではありません watashidomo wa majime na dewa arimasen.
(?)私どもはまじめなですか watashidomo wa majime na desuka.

私たち dan みじめな (sengsara) mijime na.
(+)私たちはみじめなです watakushitachi wa mijime na desu.
(-)私たちはみじめなではありません watakushi tachi wa mijime na dewa arimasen.
(?)私たちはみじめなですか watakushitachi wa mijime na desuka.

私たち dan もどかしい (menjengkelkan, frustrasi) modokashii.
(+)私たちはもどかしいです watashitachi wa modokashii desu.
(-)私たちはもどかしいではありません watashitachi wa modokashii dewa arimasen.
(?)私たちはもどかしいですか watashitachi wa modokashii desuka.

ぼくたち dan おてんばな (kurang sopan, nakal) otenba na.
(+)ぼくたちはおてんばなです bokutachi wa otenba na desu.
(-)ぼくたちはおてんばなではありません bokutachi wa otenba na dewa arimasen.
(?)ぼくたちはおてんばなですか bokutachi wa otenba na desuka.

手前ども dan つたない (tidak pandai) tsutanai.
(+)手前どもはつたないです temaedomo wa tsutanai desu.
(-)手前どもはつたないではありません temaedomo wa tsutanai dewa arimasen.
(?)手前どもはつたないですか temaedomo wa tsutanai desuka.

おれら dan うらめしい (sakit hati) urameshii.
(+)おれらはうらめしいです orera wa urameshii desu.
(-)おれらはうらめしいではありません orera wa urameshii dewa arimasen.
(?)おれらはうらめしいですか orera wa urameshii desuka.

Kata ganti orang kedua
あなたdan  ごうじような (keras kepala) goujou na.
(+)あなたは ごうじようなです anata wa goujou na desu.
(-)あなたは ごうじようなではありません anata wa goujou na dewa arimasen.
(?)あなたは ごうじようなですか anata wa goujou na desuka.

あんた dan ひょわい (lemah lunglai) hiyowai.
(+)あんたはひょわいです anta wa hiyowai desu.
(-)あんたはひょわいではありません anta wa hiyowai dewa arimasen.
(?)あんたはひょわいですか anta wa hiyowai desuka.

君 dan ハンサム (ganteng) hansamu.
(+)君はハンサムです kimi wa hansamu desu.
(-)君はハンサムではありません kimi wa hansamu dewa arimasen.
(?)君はハンサムですか kimi wa hansamu desuka.

お前 dan ふちゅういな (teledor) fuchūi na.
(+)お前はふちゅういなです omae wa fuchūi na desu.
(-)お前はふちゅういなではありません omae wa fuchūi na dewa arimasen.
(?)お前はふちゅういなですか omae wa fuchūi na desuka.

Kata ganti orang ketiga
この方 dan どんかんな (bebal, dungu) donkan na.
(+)この方はどんかんなです konokata wa donkan na desu.
(-)この方はどんかんなではありません konokata wa donkan na dewa arimasen.
(?)この方はどんかんなですか konokata wa donkan na desuka.

この人 dan びようきな (sakit) byōki na.
(+)この人はびようきなです konohito wa byōki na desu.
(-)この人はびようきなではありません konohito wa byōki na  dewa arimasen.
(?)この人はびようきなですか konohito wa byōki na desuka.

この方がた dan いさましい (berani) isamashii.
(+)この方がたはいさましいです konokatagata wa isamashii desu.
(-)この方がたはいさましいではありません konokatagata wa isamashii dewa arimasen.
(?)この方がたはいさましいですか konokatagata wa isamashii desuka.

この人たち dan いんけんな (malang, sial) inken na.
(+)この人たちはいんけんなです konohitotachi wa inken na desu.
(-)この人たちはいんけんなではありません konohitotachi wa inken na dewa arimasen.
(?)この人たちはいんけんなですか konohitotachi wa inken na desuka.

その方 dan つめたい (dingin) tsumetai.
(+)その方はつめたいです sonokata wa tsumetai desu.
(-)その方はつめたいではありません sonokata wa tsumetai dewa arimasen.
(?)その方はつめたいですか sonokata wa tsumetai desuka.

その人 dan あわただしい (terburu-buru) awatadashii.
(+)その人はあわただしいです sonohito wa awatadashii desu.
(-)その人はあわただしいではありません sonohito wa awatadashii dewa arimasen.
(?)その人はあわただしいですか sonohito wa awatadashii desuka.

その方がた dan あつかましい (tebal muka, tidak malu) atsukamashii.
(+)その方がたはあつかましいです sonokatagata wa atsukamashii desu.
(-)その方がたはあつかましいではありません sonokatagata wa atsukamashii dewa arimasen.
(?)その方がたはあつかましいですか sonokatagata wa atsukamashii desuka.

その人たち dan おおへいな (angkuh) ōhei na.
(+)その人たちはおおへいなです sonohitotachi wa ōhei na desu.
(-)その人たちはおおへいなではありません sonohitotachi wa ōhei na dewa arimasen.
(?)その人たちはおおへいなですか sonohitotachi wa ōhei na desuka.

 あの方 dan たんきな (lekas marah) tanki na.
(+)あの方はたんきなです anokata wa tanki na desu.
(-)あの方はたんきなではありません anokata wa tanki na dewa arimasen.
(?)あの方はたんきなですか anokata wa tanki na desuka.

あの人 dan たいだな (malas) taida na.
(+)あの人はたいだなです anohito wa taida na desu.
(-)あの人はたいだなではありません anohito wa taidana dewa arimasen.
(?)あの人はたいだなですか anohito wa taidana desuka.

あの方がた dan たのもしい (dapat dipercaya) tanomoshii.
(+)あの方がたはたのもしいです anokatagata wa tanomoshii desu.
(-)あの方がたはたのもしいではありません anokatagata wa tanomoshii dewa arimasen.
(?)あの方がたはたのもしいですか anokatagata wa tanomoshii desuka.

あの人たち dan ややこしい (berbelit-belit) yayakoshii.
(+)あの人たちはややこしいです anohitotachi wa yayakoshii desu.
(-)あの人たちはややこしいではありません anohitotachi wa yayakoshii dewa arimasen.
(?)あの人たちはややこしいですか anohitotachi wa yayakoshi desuka.

どなた様 dan みすぼらしい (lusuh) misubarashii.
(?)どなた様はみすぼらしいですか donatasama wa misubarashii desuka.

Kata ganti tanya
どちら様 dan むくちな (pendiam) mukuchi na.
(?)どちら様はむくちなですか dochirasama wa mukuchi na desuka.

どの方 dan むざいな  (tidak bersalah) muzai na.
(?)どの方はむざいなですか donokata wa muzai na desuka.

どなた dan さびしい  (kesepian) sabishii.
(?)どなたはさびしいですか donata wa sabishii desuka.

だれ dan せいじつな (tulus, ikhlas) seijitsu na.
(?)だれはせいじつなですか dare wa seijitsu na desuka.

Sampai di sini ya pembahasannya. Mohon maaf apabila terdapat kesalahan. Semoga dapat bermanfaat. Terima kasih sudah berkunjung :D